Lua scripts that run in Avorion rely heavily on the Avorion Scripting API and thus aren't easy to debug in normal lua environments. Avorion provides a range of methods you can use to debug them more easily though.
'~dev' debug Script
You can add the debug script to your current craft by using the following chat command:
This adds a new ~dev interaction to that entity which opens a large menu that allows you to manipulate nearly everything in the sector and your inventory, and, most importantly: It allows you to view and modify variables and scripts of entities, players, sectors and so on.
This script is meant to ease development and debugging of mods in general, so use it!
You can inspect server side tracebacks in the server log. On windows, logs are located at %AppData%\Avorion\galaxies\<name-of-save>.
An easy way to debug scripts is to add regular calls to
eprint() while writing your script. You can open the in-game console with a button.
Note: The in-game console isn't configured to a working button by default, you will have to configure it manually yourself.
print()will print regular output to the console
eprint()will print error output to the console
Depending on where the function was executed, the output will have different colors in the console, making it easy to distinguish client-prints from server-prints. Please consult the Scripting API for more information to these functions.
Advanced print debugging
You can set up a function in a script where you can easily toggle print debugging on and off, which will allow you to leave your 'print' statements in the mod. You would want it to look something like this:
local _Debug = 0 function myFunc1(_Arg1) debugPrint("Entering myFunc1 - _Arg1 is " .. tostring(_Arg1)) return _Arg1 + 5 end function debugPrint(_Msg) if _Debug == 1 then print(_Msg) end end
This would print "Entering myFunc1 - _Arg1 is 5" if you ran myFunc1(5) somewhere in your script, but only if you set _Debug to 1. Using this, you can toggle debug information on and off whenever you want.
printTable() function to recursively print a table. It's defined in data/scripts/lib/utility.lua.
Another easy way to debug scripts, mostly while they're being used by players already, is to use logging. You can use the
printlog() function, that behaves similarly to
print(), but prints to the logfile instead of the console. Depending on whether that function is called on the client or server, it will print to the client or server logfile.
type() to find out what kind of object you're dealing with.
type() is a built-in lua function that can display the type of an object.
local a = 2 local b = "foo" print (type(a)) print (type(b))
type() will always display
userobject for Avorion Scripting API objects. See
All Avorion Scripting API objects have a "secret"
__avoriontype property, that is basically just a string containing their internal avorion type.
You can use this property to easily
- find out if the instance is a Scripting API object
- find out what type the object has exactly
local m = Matrix() print (type(m)) print (m.__avoriontype)
When typing in the command
/devmode, the game goes into development mode. In order for development mode to be properly initialized, a restart is required.
The following functionality is only available in /devmode and not meant to be user-friendly in any way. Its only purpose is to speed up development.
entitydbg.lua on each entity
In /devmode, each Entity that can have scripts, will have the entitydbg.lua script attached to it.
F5 / F6
Please note: This feature is not polished in any way and can (will...) crash the game on occasion.
- F5: Reload scripts of selected Entity (if any)
- F5: Reload scripts of current Sector (if no Entity selected)
- Shift-F5: Reload scripts of Player
- Ctrl-F5: Reload scripts of Sector and all Entities
- F6: Clear scripts cache of all client-side scripts (mod files, tooltips, parts, upgrades, sectorspecs, fighter templates)
- Ctrl-F6: In addition to normal F6, also reload shaders, textures and client config (this might crash the client if done too often)
- Shift-F7: Cycle through various background rendering variations and textures
- F11: Reload volumes.ini
You can read more about Modding Pitfalls here.